*History 1

The order of significant events in Ohio and the United States can be shown on a timeline.

Content Statement Elaboration:

Chronological thinking helps students develop a clear sense of historical time in order to recognize the temporal sequence of events in history. Students were first introduced to timelines in grade two. Grade-three students practiced chronological order by placing local events on a timeline. By grade four, students are able to construct timelines with appropriate titles, evenly spaced intervals for years, decades and centuries, and events in chronological order.

As students place events on timelines, they begin to understand cause-and-effect relationships among events and gain early experience with the conventions of BC/BCE and AD/CE. (Note: Students begin using these conventions in grade six).

In grade five, students will examine relationships between events on multiple-tier timelines.

Expectation for Learning
Construct a timeline of significant events in Ohio and the United States to demonstrate an understanding of units of time and chronological order.

Content Statement:

*History 2

Primary and secondary sources can be used to create historical narratives.

Content Statement Elaboration:


Historical narratives recount human events. Students locate, evaluate and organize a variety of sources to reconstruct an historical event.

Primary sources are records of events as they are first described, usually by witnesses or by people who were involved in the event. Many primary sources were created at the time of the event. Other primary sources may include memoirs, oral interviews or accounts that were recorded later. Visual materials (e.g., photos, original artwork, posters, films) also are important primary sources.

Secondary sources offer an analysis or a restatement of primary sources. They are written after the events have taken place by people who were not present at the events. They often attempt to describe or explain primary sources. Examples of secondary sources include encyclopedias, textbooks, books and articles that interpret or review research works.

By having students examine various primary and secondary sources related to an event or topic, they begin to understand historical perspective, a concept further developed in grade seven. Students also gain early experience identifying supporting details, distinguishing fact from opinion, and speculating about cause and effect relationships.

Historical narratives are constructed based upon primary and secondary sources. These sources are used to provide background information and support for the accounts of historical events and the perspectives of the writer.

Expectation for Learning

Research, organize and evaluate information from primary and secondary sources to create an historical narrative.

Content Statement:

History 3

Various groups of people have lived in Ohio over time including prehistoric and historic American Indians, migrating settlers and immigrants. Interactions among these groups have resulted in both cooperation and conflict.

Content Statement Elaboration:


Prehistoric (Paleo, Archaic, Woodland, Late Prehistoric [Fort Ancient]) and historic (Delaware, Miami, Ottawa, Seneca, Shawnee and Wyandot) American Indians were the original inhabitants of Ohio. While information on prehistoric groups is somewhat limited, there is evidence of cooperation involving the construction of mounds and trade with distant groups. In addition, there is evidence of conflict, especially among the Late Prehistoric groups as they sometimes fought over access to hunting territories or the most fertile agricultural lands.

Europeans began to appear in the Ohio Country beginning with the French in the late 1600s followed closely by the English. Later waves of immigration included, but were not limited to, the Scotch-Irish and Germans. Migrating settlers came into the Ohio Country from other colonies.

Immigrants worked together to create new settlements in Ohio. They cooperated in building transportation systems and developing new businesses. Hunting strategies and agricultural practices were sometimes shared among American Indians and European settlers. On the other hand, issues surrounding the use and ownership of land caused conflict between these groups.

The continuing struggle among European powers for control of the Ohio River Valley resulted in the French and Indian War, which further strained relationships among the European settlers and the various American Indian tribes.

Expectation for Learning

Explain how interactions among prehistoric peoples and between historic American Indians and European settlers resulted in both cooperation and conflict.

Content Statement:

*Geography 9

A map scale and cardinal and intermediate directions can be used to describe the relative location of physical and human characteristics of Ohio and the United States.

Content Statement Elaboration:


First introduced in grade four, relative location is the location of a place relative to other places (e.g., northwest or downstream). Fourth-grade students describe the relative location of the physical and human characteristics of Ohio and the United States using a map scale and cardinal and intermediate directions.

A map scale shows the relationship between a unit of length on a map and the corresponding length on the Earth’s surface. Students can describe relative location by using the map scale to approximate the distance between places.

Cardinal directions are the four main points of the compass (north, south, east and west).

Intermediate directions are the points of the compass that fall between north and east, north and west, south and east, and south and west, i.e., NE, NW, SE and SW.

Cardinal and intermediate directions also can be used to describe relative location, such as Dayton is west of Zanesville or Virginia is southeast of Ohio.

Map skills are developed further in grades five and six as students study the Western and Eastern Hemispheres.

Expectation for Learning

Use a map scale and cardinal and intermediate directions to describe the relative location of physical and human characteristics of Ohio and the United States.